A model is proposed in which upward-moving, liquid-in-solid convection cells are the primary mechanism by which the Earth’s interior is cooled. Convection cells form in the liquid core when heat from radioactive sources is convected outward. Each cell penetrates the mantle by melting the rock above it due to the extra heat transported by the cell. In this way each convection cell propagates upwards through the otherwise solid mantle as the convected heat melts rock above the cell and solidifies magma below it. Because the cells are initiated in the core spontaneously and at random, the model accounts for the observed random nature of many geophysical phenomena. A laboratory experiment is proposed whereby a low melting point solid such as wax is subjected to a high temperature gradient in order to promote liquid-in-solid convection and so emulate aspects of mantle dynamics.
Download the full paper here.
Two papers providing experimental support for the existence of such liquid convection cells have recently (October 2020) been published in Nature:
Melt Mapped inside the Earth’s Mantle by Laura Cobden
Seismic evidence for partial melt below tectonic plates. Debayle et al
One Reply to “Liquid-in-Solid Convection”
John Reid – Interesting. I’ll have to study up.
Here’s Herndon’s treatise on the topic. In this case he is challenging convection as the cause of the Earth’s magnetic field. Convection does occur but is not the source of the magnetic field.
Be prepared for the sequence of layers as described by Herndon:
1) Sub-core (GeoReactor)
2) Sub-shell (Region where transmutation takes place, with fission daughter elements (principally the Lanthanides) build back to the heavier Actinides). A breeder reactor.
3) Inner Shell
4) outer shell (molten Iron Nickel )
Rather, as part of the fission process there is Inverse Beta Decay, releasing an electron. The electron is conducted away from the core but it follows a curved path due to the rotation of the planet. Therefore, this mechanism is much like a DC dynamo to generate the magnetic field. The electron so produced is the reason that the Earth has a net negative charge. However, lightning presents an even higher potential.
No Earth-Core Convection
No Earth-Core Convection
No Earth-Core Convection
I shall check it out. I am happy with no core convection. I reckon convection happens in the mantle. How else can you explain the South Atlantic Anomaly?
John Reid – Even convection in the mantle is dubious. Convection assumes that crustal material is recycled, subducted below to rise up at ridge systems.
Obduction is the sideways and upwards movement of the edge of a crustal plate over the margin of an adjacent plate.
Several papers ascribe obduction to the start of the Himalayas, with the Tibetan plateau thrusting over the top of the Indian plate. The Himalayas are still thrusting upward and the premise is that the obduction of the Tibetan plateau somehow changed over to subduction, with the Indian plate sliding beneath the Tibetan plateau and levering up the Himalayas. Does this make sense ? The mass of the Himalayas is gigantic compared to the thickness of the Indian plate. If the subduction scenario were true, wouldn’t you think that the Indian plate would be crumpling up ?
The technical term for mountain-building is orogenisis, the process in which a section of the earth’s crust is folded and deformed by lateral compression to form a mountain range.
The simple explanation is that obduction continues to today due to planetary expansion, with continuing upthrust of continental land mass(es) and subsidence along coastal regions plus spreading ridge systems. Expansion tectonics has been advocated by Ott Hilgenberg in the 1930s, Samuel Carey in the 1950s, James Maxlow, Ian Plimer, and Giancarlo Scalera. I have had a few enjoyable e-Mail communications with Dr. Scalera. Dr. J. Marvin Herndon describes this phenomenon as “Whole Earth Decompression Dynamics”.
Herndon also points out that Continental Drift as currently described is impossible. See link. Planetary expansion nicely explains continental separation, as well as the growth in area of several Pacific islands such as Tuvalu.
By tracking satellite observations over more than two decades, the Deltares Institute of the Netherlands has observed that the area of the oceans has grown, and the area of land has grown even more. See link. Expansion of the oceans provide greater containment volume. Sea level rise due to melting ice cubes is bunkum. We have been observing miniscule sea level rise since the beginning of the Holocene due to steam venting from submarine volcanoes, hydrothermal vents, and subglacial volcanoes, as well as the thermal expansion of ocean waters. Such thermal expansion exceeds melting ice by a factor of two (Univ. of Bonn, 2016).
Herndon explains the Expanding Earth in the following manner:
All planets and stars basically form as gas giants. The gas/liquid overburden of the Earth’s proto-atmosphere had exerted 300 Earth masses onto a rocky inner “kernel”, compressing the Earth into a size approx. 2/3rds of the Earth’s current dimensions. Herndon describes that the heat of compression delivers heat to the base of the lithosphere in a manner not taken into account. He calls this phenomenon as “Mantle Decompression Thermal Tsunami”. See link.
Upon the thermonuclear ignition of our Sun, the gas/liquid proto-atmospheres of the four rocky inner planets were ripped off by the blast wave. These planets have been expanding ever since and their rotation has been slowing. Multiple papers describe how the Earth once rotated much faster than today. Tidal movement was much more pronounced and was a factor in the evolution of Life.
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